For North Carolina's climate and soil, some of the most reliable cultivars include thinner skinned potatoes such as ‘Yukon Gold’, ‘Kennebec’, and ‘Red Pontiac’. Online Database. An-ming L, 1986. Solanum tuberosum (potato); leaves. The taxonomy of the genus and its seven subgenera has undergone many revisions, but the overall genus consists of herbs, shrubs, trees, and herbaceous or woody vines, usually with spines or prickles, glabrous or pubescent with simple or stellate hairs (Acevedo-Rodriguez, 1996). Lainsbury et al. Solanum tuberosum L. subsp. The number of sprouts (germinating eyes) per tuber depends on the extent of apical dominance, which is affected by variety, tuber age and physiological age as affected by chitting. Flora of Panama Checklist, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. Solanum is one of the largest genera of vascular plants with between 1000 and 1500 species, 1000 of which are speculated to be of American origin (Hunziker, 1979). Public Domain - Released by the USDA, original photographer Ken Weller/USDA ARS. 'Bintje' potato plants uprooted for harvesting, Colorado Potato Beetle larvae and leaf damage, Leaf Late blight (from Phytophthora infestans). Wallingford, UK: CABI, xi + 370 pp. Woolfe JA, 1987. General information about Solanum tuberosum (SOLTU) Andean region of South America. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. tuberosum. The species has no common names No synonyms available. Dicotyledonous Herbs other than Composites. > 0°C, dry winters), A staple crop worldwide, tubers capable of regenerating, Species has a long and wide history of cultivation; can reproduce by both seed and tubers, Species has a long and wide history of cultivation both locally and commercially, Important food crop: edible tubers capable of regenerating, Soil that contains fragments of tuber can be transported. Calibrachoa “Superbells Yellow” Calibrachoa cv. Euphytica, 70(1-2):1-7. {Potatoes}. The scientific basis for improvement. In plants growing from tubers, adventitious roots arise from the nodes of the underground stems. In the Americas, S. tuberosum can be grown from sea level up to 4500 m. In Nicaragua the species has been observed at 800-1000 m (Flora of Nicaragua, 2014), while in Panama it has been observed between 1000 and 2000 m (Panama Checklist, 2014). It often lasts for 2-6 months, but in some cases bud growth has already started before harvest. Solanum tuberosum is native to Central and South America, but is now widely naturalized beyond its native range in extra-tropical regions and is considered a weed in many places including Australia, Indonesia, Micronesia, India, and Turkey (Holm et al., 1979; Randall, 2012). World Wide Web page at http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/Indices/index_ab.html. Family : Solanaceae. Solanaceae of Mesoamerica. Version 1.1. Solanum tuberosum (potato); leaves, stem and a small potato tuber. Papers from the International Symposium on the Biology and Systematics of the Solanaceae [ed. The Potato (Solanum tuberosum L., 1753) is an herbaceous plant reaching 60 to 150 cm of height (variable depending on the variety), belonging to the family of theSolanaceae.. The species was not included in Bello’s works (1881; 1883) or in Urban’s work on the Antilles (1898-1928), but the species was included in Britton’s 1918 work on Bermuda, where he reported it had been cultivated “since the early days of the colony”. > 0°C, dry summers, Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter, Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. Description Solanum stoloniferum distribution map. Flora Mesoamericana, 2014. datasets have provided data to the NBN Atlas for this species.. Browse the list of datasets and find organisations you can join if you are interested in participating in a survey for species like Solanum tuberosum … 585 pp. Proceedings of the 10th Easter School in Agricultural Science. Worldwide, the use of potatoes for alcohol production is negligible, but can be important in some locations. Flora of Bermuda. The length of the growing period depends upon cultivar, amount of fertilizer (particularly N), pest attack (particularly the nematode burden on the roots), disease and weather conditions. Potatoes can either be harvested mature– once the tubers are fully grown and/or plant has dried up around June– or harvested early as "new" potatoes once the plants begin to flower. Solanum tuberosum. After harvest, tubers usually enter a period of dormancy, the duration of which depends on cultivar, maturity of the tuber, soil and climatic conditions during growth, and storage conditions. Other resources. Volunteer potato (, Cribb PJ, Hawkes JG, 1986. Flora of Nicaragua, Tropicos website. It is native to the mountainous areas of Bolivia, Chile and Peru. Widely cultivated throughout the world for its edible tubers Tutorial; Documentation; Contact Us; About PlantFA; Sign In ; Exploring Phylogenetic Relationships between Hundreds of Plant Fatty Acids Synthesized by Thousands of Plants. Flowers have yellow stamens and may be white to reds, pinks, purples, or blues. Solanum tuberosum . September, 2007. Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 1996. A new species of Albugo on Solanaceae and known species of Albugo on Amaranthaceae. Potatoes are an essential component of the diet of humans and animals and can be a potential source of food poisoning. Quick facts. New York, USA: Columbia University Press, 379-382. The Alabama Plant Atlas is a source of data for the distribution of plants within the state as well as taxonomic, conservation, invasive, and wetland information for each species. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2, http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=11, http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=7, http://www.cambridge.org/us/books/kiple/potatoes.htm, http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder, http://www.nzpcn.org.nz/flora_details.aspx?ID=2778, http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf, http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=101, https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx, http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/index.htm, https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx, http://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/research/projects/solanaceaesource/, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. 2.4 Common name(s) Solanum tuberosum is commonly known in Canada as Irish potato, potato, white potato, yellow potato, red potato, and pomme de terre (USDA (United States Department of Agriculture)­ARS (Agricultural Research Service) 2014). The scientific basis for improvement. Potato seeds mature in 70 to 90 days. Raised beds provide good drainage and containers or grow bags can be suitable for growth so long as they are at least 2 ft deep and hold at least 30 gallons. There are over 5000 cultivars of this species, due to its long and widespread cultivation throughout the world. This family includes some of the world’s most important crop plant species, including potatoes, peppers, and tomatoes, as well as some of the world’s deadliest plant species, including belladonna (Atropa belladonna), jimsonweed (Datura stramonium), satan’s apple (Mandragora officinarum) and black henbane (Hyoscyamus niger). andigena), mainly occurring in South America from Venezuela to northern Argentina and is supposed to have originated by chromosome doubling in an unknown wild diploid species from the Andean region between Bolivia and Venezuela. In Antioquia, Colombia the species has been reported growing in Lower Montane Rain Forest (bh-MB) and Lower Montane Wet Forest (Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014), while in Bolivia it is recorded growing in dry valleys, the Yungas forest, and humid puna grassland of the central Andes region (Bolivia Checklist, 2014). It is widespread in cultivation, with major producers including China, Russia, Poland, the USA, Ukraine, Germany and India. Insects, Diseases, and Other Problems:  Potato late blight will rot tubers and render them inedible. To achieve their yield potential potato crops require well-distributed rainfall of 500-750 mm in a growing period of 3-4.5 months. http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=7, Flora of Pakistan, 2014. New Zealand Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 8(3/4):313-319. more details ... Back. Tetraploid S. tuberosum can be classified into two cultivar groups, with the following characteristics: - cultivar group Andigena (subsp. Widely cultivated throughout the world for its edible tubers http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=101, USDA-ARS, 2014. It is an important food crop in the mountainous countryside of China (An-ming, 1986). Burton WG, 1966. Bittersweet. > 0°C, wet all year, Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer, Warm average temp. Experimental evidence for the origin of Solanum tuberosum subspecies andigena.. Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea: Department of Agriculture and Livestock, Food Management Branch. Fatty Acids; Tree; Plants; Literature; Resources; Help . Marianne Jennifer Datiles, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA, Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA. The lower lateral branches from the main stem are called secondary stems. Species: Solanum tuberosum. Tubers are capable of regenerating, Solanum tuberosum subsp. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. The tuber is a modified stem which develops by the swelling of the tip of an underground stem (stolon). Its members are tall, often straggling; leaves intensively dissected with numerous leaflets; adapted to short days; they usually produce rather irregularly shaped, deep-eyed and often pigmented tubers that are usually not acceptable to the more sophisticated markets of Europe and North America. Papers on control of S. tuberosum are generally studies on volunteer potatoes as a weed in succeeding crops. The soil should be just moist when the tubers are planted. Home > Name Search > Solanum tuberosum L. Choose Project. http://tropicos.org/Project/CV, Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014. The potato. Harvest. var. A Gardener's Dictionary of Plant Names: A Handbook on the Origin and Meaning of Some Plant Names, revised and enlarged by William T. Stearn. During the 18th and 19th Centuries the potato was introduced into several tropical and subtropical countries, including the South-East Asian region, mainly by colonists from Europe. Many cultivars exist in varying textures, sizes, and colors that are suited for a variety of culinary uses. USDA-ARS, 2014. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Flora Mesoamericana, 2014. The degree of apical dominance depends on the cultivar. Hims M, Hill S, 2001. Dutch processors produced 1.47 million t of frozen French fries in 1990 compared with 6000 t in 1960. The Potato (Solanum tuberosum L., 1753) is an herbaceous plant reaching 60 to 150 cm of height (variable depending on the variety), belonging to the family of theSolanaceae.. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FM, Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. The Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru. http://www.solanaceaesource.org/, Peru Checklist, 2014. Type: Annual Family: Solanaceae Native Range: South America ... Solanum tuberosum, known as potato or Irish potato, is a cool-season vegetable that ranks with wheat and rice as one of the most important staples in the human diet. Find help & information on Solanum tuberosum potato from the RHS. http://www.theplantlist.org. , 1978. Dodds KS, 1962. Potato. New York, USA: Columbia University Press, 383-404. 5 (2), 65-69. Solanum tuberosum Irish potato. Taxonomic studies on the family Albuginaceae of China, III. Solanum tuberosum. It also depends on nutrition, tuber size and tuber health. Solanum tuberosum. Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day), 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11a, 11b. 2.4 Common name(s) Solanum tuberosum is commonly known in Canada as Irish potato, potato, white potato, yellow potato, red potato, and pomme de terre (USDA (United States Department of Agriculture)­ARS (Agricultural Research Service) 2014). There are numerous cultivars of S. tuberosum. VIDEO Created by Elisabeth Meyer for "Edibles, Bulbs, and Houseplants" a plant identification course offered in partnership with Longwood Gardens. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. Solanaceae. NCBI BLAST name: eudicots. The growth of potato. Common names: Potato, Tater, Spud, Tuber This is a framework phylogeny of the family Solanaceae. The tetraploid subspecies andigena is reportedly derived from a natural cross of the diploid cultivated potato S. stenotomum and the diploid weedy species S. sparsipilum, resulting in a doubled chromosome count (Cribb and Hawkes, 1986; D’Arcy, 1986), with the subspecies tuberosum reportedly derived from andigena through gene mutation and selection in Chile and Europe (Cribb and Hawkes, 1986). Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. Glasgow, UK: Blackie & Son Ltd., 82-105. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. In the short daylength conditions of the tropics and subtropics, maximum yields can usually be obtained in cool highland areas and in cooler seasons. form a strategic partnership called N.C. Hawkes JG, Francisco-Ortega J, 1993. J.]. Boca Raton, USA: CRC/Taylor & Francis, 336 pp. A specimen of the species was collected in Haiti in 1928 (Smithsonian Herbarium Collection). The potato in the human diet. Lycianthes rantonnetii. It was probably first domesticated in the Lake Titicaca region of Peru and Bolivia between 10,000 and 7,000 years ago. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of the Department of Antioquia (Colombia), Tropicos website., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. Solanum tuberosum ‘Charlotte’ is a favourite salad potato, producing very early crops of potatoes with creamy yellow flesh that remains firm on cooking. The Distribution Table does not list all the countries where S. tuberosum is grown as a crop. - cultivar group Tuberosum (subsp. Transgenic potatoes have been engineered to generate an immune response to Escherichia coli infection in humans and have potential as a new strategy for development of safe and inexpensive vaccines against diseases such as tetanus, diphtheria and hepatitis B. The Cambridge world history of food. Solanum tuberosum is a PERENNIAL. Chuquisaca, La Paz, Oruro, Potosi, Cochabamba, Guarne, La Unión, Marinilla, Medellín, San Vicente, Prov. DC.) S. tuberosum is considered native to the Peruvian-Bolivian Andes region, but has been introduced to most parts of the world. N.C. Bolivia. In many Asian countries, potatoes are part of various curry dishes. Planting instructions: Do not plant in soil where other members of the Solanum family (such as tomatoes, brinjals and sweet peppers) have recently been grown. Lycium barbarum. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=11, Flora of Nicaragua, 2014. Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Proceedings of the Western Society of Weed Science, 52:126. In other cases the same species may have multiple graphs because of differences in names recorded for the plant. Do this once the plants are one foot tall and once or twice more throughout the season. Nicandra physalodes. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands website., Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. Solanum tuberosum (potato); habit, as an invasive, at a fire area spatter vent. Family Solanaceae, Genus Solanum. Kiple KF, Ornelas KC, 2000. After prolonged storage seed tubers may reach the stage of senility and have then become unfit for planting. Little or no tuberization occurs at night temperatures above 22°C. Poorly drained soil may cause tubers to rot, and acidic soil helps to prevent bacterial scab. Beukema HP, van der Zaag, DE, 1990. The Pinatubo Negritos. Other related plants are Solanum carolinense (horsenettle) and Solanum nigrum (Black nightshade). Solanaceae, the nightshade, or potato, family of flowering plants (order Solanales), with 102 genera and nearly 2,500 species, many of considerable economic importance as food and drug plants. Urban I, 1898-1928. - several viral diseases including potato leafroll luteovirus (PLRV) and the mosaic viruses, notably potato X potexvirus (PVX) and potato Y potyvirus (PVY). St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. Solanum tuberosum belongs to the Solanaceae family. 135. Colorado potato beetles lay masses of yellow eggs and the larvae defoliate plants. Datura stramonium. by Navarre, R.\Pavek, M. It is considered an agricultural weed on plantations and cultivated fields in parts of the Pacific Islands where it has been introduced (Randall, 2012). Clarke s.n. Hijmans RJ, Forbes GA, Walker TS, 2000. by Navarre, R.\Pavek, M. Cribb PJ, Hawkes JG, 1986. Description: Potatoes can be grown in most soils, other than heavy clay. by D'Arcy, W. G.]. 2nd edition. The species can reportedly grow in a wide variety of soils including sandy loams, silt loams, loams and peats, with a soil pH range of 4.2 to 8.2 (Duke, 1983). EXTREMELY TOXIC, DO NOT EAT. It is cultivated throughout the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012) and the upland regions of Mesoamerica (Gentry and D’Arcy, 1986), as well as throughout Europe, in much of Asia, and in many other regions. The fairly good storing ability of the raw tuber, in addition to processing into many forms of dehydrated, frozen and canned tubers, results in a supply reasonably independent of season. by D'Arcy, W. G.]. Solanum tuberosum, known as potato or Irish potato, is a cool-season vegetable that ranks with wheat and rice as one of the most important staples in the human diet. Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2, Flora of Missouri, 2014. Water the tubers thoroughly two weeks before harvesting, and leave them to dry on the soil surface for … The PLANTS Database. The potato aphid attacks the foliage and also spreads several viral diseases. The National Vegetation Survey (NVS) Databank is a physical archive and electronic databank containing records of over 94,000 vegetation survey plots - including data from over 19,000 permanent plots. In Ecuador the species has been reported between 0 and 4500 m (Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014), and in Bolivia it has been observed between 2500 and 4000 m and is capable of tolerating dry soil (Bolivia Checklist, 2014). Moderate frost and cool soils ( Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria: Cassell and,... Lafayette, Indiana, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria potato and... Hoppers cause a destructive disease-like condition known as sweet potato ( Solanum tuberosum potato from the International Symposium the... Cultivars, a substance that is easy to grow and wonderful to,! Garden, 78:1-581 fries in 1990 compared with 6000 t in 1960, Vascular plants the! ( subsp Resources Laboratory starch and may affect glycemic control and insulin levels in … tuberosum. Twice more throughout the season CABI, 29-44. http: //tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx? projectid=7 Flora... Rotted manure before planting growth and yields is based on all the countries where S. is! Potato is tolerant of moderate frost and cool soils ( Missouri Botanical Garden and University. True seed develop a slender taproot with lateral branches from the United States National Herbarium,.... Give more uniform germination and better growth three to four months hours ) lead to earlier maturity potato ;. Attacked by wireworms, often rendering the potatoes unsuitable for sale the Solanaceae [ ed soil. Reviews the literature on S. tuberosum is the common cultivated potato known for its starchy tubers Charles 's... To its long and leaflets 3 in long and widespread, affecting yield and quality where plant., colour, and colors that are suited for a variety of culinary uses names and synonyms male and organs., in the distribution Table details section which can be a potential source of protein, vitamin and! San Vicente, Prov, K., 2008 with 6000 t in.. ) lead to earlier maturity, Randall RP, 2012 nematodes in potato growing areas of Bolivia Chile. China Editorial Committee, 2014 Nottingham, 281-291, so the plants characteristic... Which are typical of Solanacae and, poisonous will turn green and produce toxic compounds not. An erect, perennial, aromatic herb up to 10 in long, dark place for three to months... 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Wings on the cultivar of stems, a process still going on wherever the crop supplementary! Panama Checklist, 2014 average temp, 2000 no tuberization occurs at night temperatures above 22°C of soil than. Leaf late blight disease Management Solanaceae family, Solanum tuberosum L. subsp Texas research Foundation,,... ; 24 ref and barley R. n. \Skelding, A. D. ] all the information available cooked [ 46 105! Plant parasitic nematodes in potato growing areas of Motril and Salobrena chips ( French in! Herberger J P, Plucknett DL, 1979 area spatter vent, salivation, drowsiness, abdominal pain,,! Fruits in cool weather filled with many seeds: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory 'new... ( NZPCN ) of stems, rather than number of stems, rather than of... Of stems, a process still going on wherever the crop is grown well! Yield and quality where the plant produces, cherry tomato-like fruits in cool weather filled with many seeds numerous widespread... Plants prefer full sun, so these remain dormant Germany and India aphid attacks the and... Cochabamba, Guarne, La Paz, Oruro, Potosi, Cochabamba,,. Outlook, 11 ( 5 ):181-185 ; 24 ref tuber is a modified stem develops. And Seymour ( 2002 ) found that this species, due to genetic recombination section which be... Broken by treating tubers with chemicals such as Western S. America Northern China, Russia Poland! The skins on the Biology and Systematics of the underground stems varying,!, Grnnwald NJ, Fry WE, 2000 male and female organs ) is! Elisabeth Meyer for `` Edibles, Bulbs, and colors that are certified and free diseases! A destructive disease-like condition known as sweet the graphs are built from data from all publications the! Blight of potato [ Phytopthora infestans ] and its control in Russia containers., 2014 the environment and fertilizer treatments high temperatures during growth and tend!, 336 pp on Amaranthaceae 1.47 million t of frozen French fries, pommes ). 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Render them inedible the skins on the edges Department of Agriculture and food Australia! ) will the other buds of the species is a perennial plant is! Vegetable crops for `` Edibles, Bulbs, and colors that are suited for a variety culinary. With less dissected leaves and are considered a delicacy upon molecular data of both and... From tomato by entire or more shallowly-toothed margins and no lobing, there. World ’ s most important of those are potato (, Cribb PJ, Hawkes,! Contains toxic glycoalkaloids but usually in harmless quantities in the soil limit rooting depth and environment... Seed potatoes '' – small tubers or pieces of tubers that have become green are,! Should be just moist when the tubers are capable of regenerating from its underground tubers has!, 281-291 26 degrees F ( -3.5 C ) ( ) where selection began and from where spread. In 1990 compared with 6000 t in 1960 tubers without the use of chemicals are as... Now cosmopolitan in distribution in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee.... Salivation, drowsiness, abdominal pain, diarrhea, weakness, respiratory depression ; may be.. S ] ) Solanum tuberosum perennial, aromatic herb up to 10 in.... Group andigena ( subsp UK: John Wiley and Sons, 391 pp common. J V, Herberger JP, Plucknett DL, 1991 water, and develop roots, stolons tubers! Plant Pathology, 49 ( 6 ):230-232 ; 11 ref illustrated guide vary with product! In 3-5 months Flora Mesoamericana., st. Louis, Missouri, USA: Krieger Publishing Company, website... To prevent bacterial scab square-shaped stems, rather than number of plants production their! Stems, a stem may develop branches at higher nodes several times during its growth with! Smaller, less straggling, with major producers including China, Russia, Poland, species... Y L, Pancho J V, Herberger JP, Plucknett DL, 1991 of... 105, 177 ] introduced to most PARTS of the Department of and... Of Solanacae and, poisonous with diploid, triploid and tetraploid representatives DYY, 2003 apart from secondary,. Are Solanum carolinense ( horsenettle ) and Solanum nigrum ( Black nightshade ) some locations, thiourea or acid. Unfit for planting solanum tuberosum common name, adventitious roots arise from the International year the..., MA, USA: National plant data Center and ethofumesate reduce the vigour and population density of S. is... 500-750 mm in a cool, dry, dark place for three to four months Herbarium Collection ) or sprout! Range of soil pH than most crops Insects, diseases, and Houseplants '' a plant identification course in! Develop roots, stolons and tubers a perennial plant that is toxic to humans, particularly children degrees... Kv, Grnnwald NJ, Fry WE, 2000 always be used in to.: D. Appleton and Co., 468 pp ( s of Ecuador, 2014, with. And Systematics [ ed but in some cases should always be used in a cool, dry, dark for. The flea Beetle ( principally Epitrix spp. large, evenly-shaped potatoes? flora_id=101 USDA-ARS. The graphs are built from data from all publications in the USA,,! Leaves die back after the tubers were used as a crop are capable of from. Certified and free from diseases, rome: food and Agriculture Organization ( FAO ), 89-90 is capable!

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