By 1874 the line of the Kamehameha family was extinct. .”5 The only attempt I have seen made to explain these two opposites, Po and Ao, on the basis of Hawaiian thought about the relation between this material world and a corresponding spirit world called the Po is to be found in Joseph Kukahiʻs printed text of 1902. Born was the drupa shellfish, his child the bitter white shellfish came forth, Born was the conch shell, his child the small conch shell came forth, Born was the nerita shellfish, the sand-burrowing shellfish his child came forth, Born was the fresh water shellfish, his child the small fresh water shellfish came forth, Born was man for the narrow stream, the woman for the broad stream, 35. Bastian saw in the pig birth “a wave of sensual passion” and, in the series following, the “beginning of reason and judgment resulting in the development of crafts.” Pokini refers the first halfdozen names to the practice of shaping the head (po'o) by manipulation in infancy to conform to the family branch to which the child belonged. 1. But Kupihea is probably right in interpreting the spread of the rat family from upland to shore and their nibbling habits as symbolic of the rise of new lines of chiefs under whom taboos multiplied. 5, 9, 10; 232, II. . His signs were observed in the clouds. Similarly a Tahitian chant called “Creation of Man” given to Orsmond by three different reciters between 1822 and 1833 shows Taʻaroa, after land, sky, and ocean have been filled with living things, consulting “Tu, the sacred one, Tu, the great artisan of Taʻaroa,” about filling “the room for man.” He “conjures up from below” (rahu ra i raro) the man Tiʻi. PARKER, REV. Kusaie and Ponape are all serfs. . Beckwith, Hawaiian Mythology, pp. The prostration taboo with the penalty for its infraction of death by burning, the terrible Kapu wela o na liʻi, tradition says was brought from the island of Kauai to Oahu whence it was introduced into Maui at the time of the ruling chief Kekaulike, who must have been a near contemporary of Ka-ʻI-ʻi-mamao, since his daughter Kalola became wife to that chiefʻs son; Malo indeed calls its introduction “modern.”2 Only the uncovering of the upper part of the body in coming into the presence of a high chief is noticed by Ellis in Tahiti.3 Firth speaks of the crouching position taken in Tikopia by one who brings a gift to appease a chief whose anger he has incurred, and Alexander reports from the Marshall Islands in the early seventies: “The people of . O kane ia Waiʻololi, o ka wahine ia Waiʻolola, 454. Of Hewahewa who chanted as Keʻeaumoku lay dying, we are told that he claimed lineal descent from the priest Paao whom tradition claimed to have migrated to Hawaii before intercourse with southern groups had ceased and to have introduced reforms on that island at a time of decay of the chiefship. To understand what such a chant contributed to the prestige of a family of rank, it will be necessary to know something of the terms upon which a ruling chief held his title to control over land rights and ultimately over the lives and activities of his followers. . . . A kind of migration story follows with an enumeration of well-known lands of the Pacific. . 6 ff. . Ka wahine no ʻIliponi, no loko o ʻIʻipakalani, 666. . . . . genealogy in the traditional Hawaiian style. Although rat shooting with bow and arrow was a favorite pastime of chiefs and comparison to a rat an unlucky sign in word magic, the rat family were nevertheless in line of descent from gods of the Po and might appear on earth in offspring endowed with spirit power. Not that the cosmic conception has no place in the poetʻs imagery. There he places the Kumulipo beside other genealogies of beginning like that of Puanue, where “the pillars of earth and the pillars of heaven” (na kukulu o ka honua a me na kukulu o ka lani) are said to have been “born” to Paia-ka-lani and his wife Kumu-kane-ke-kaʻa; or that of Wakea, where Papa gave birth to “this group of islands”; or the statement of others that it “was really made by the hands of Kane” (? The old heiau of Kaiʻele in Kalihi is sometimes pointed to as the place where she changed her shape from age to youth. The embryo lying surrounded by the sac of fluid within the motherʻs womb belongs to the spirit world, to Kanaloa; with birth it emerges into the world of living men and becomes the child of Kane. Nor did the Polynesian poet stand off and view his world in Miltonic form as trembling “in shadowy fashion” through “an awful veil of cloud.” He thought of it, if at all, as a land mass upheaved from primeval waters out of kind of pit leading to underworlds whence life sprang and to which it might return; arched above also by an equivalent number of sky. 392-94. in various districts, especially on Oahu, stronghold of Lono worship, from whom families now living claim descent. . Hawaiians generally represent Po as a period of darkness and give the word the meaning of night as opposed to day (ao). . seems to imply that Kiʻi, perhaps representing the danger to a young wife of a misalliance, is one of the evil spirits to be conjured into helplessness. Discipline and judgment have been displayed in ruthlessly weeding out what must have been numerous incidental fruits of scholarship which developed during the years spent working on the chant. Hanau ka Nahawele, o ka Unauna kana keiki, puka, 27. . . O ke Akua ke komo, ʻaʻoe komo kanaka, 250. It was created by Jessica Kalika EnYuck Wong as part of her Hawaiian Studies Plan B thesis titled: Navigating Through Repositories: Making Mo'okÅ«'auhau Research … Ancient Hawaiiansthought of it as a place of creation. . This text and translation, together with comparison with other cosmogonies from Polynesia and from ancient Asiatic as well as European civilizations, Bastian incorporated into a volume called Die heilige Sage der Polynesier, published in 1881 in Leipzig. The obscure treatment of the courting story is a good illustration of poetic courtly style. . . kaona called the dominant characteristic of native art—the more deftly hidden, the more delightful to those who catch the application.3 The meaning of a separate passage must hence be referred for its interpretation to this double significance, often to the meaning of the chant as a whole, and this, as we shall presently see, is a subject for argument in the case of the Kumulipo even among Hawaiians themselves who are familiar to some extent with the requirements of old poetic style. Auckland, 1885. Hanau ka Napa, hanau ka Nala i ke kai la holo, 144. The “lashes (whiskers?) E. K. Lilikalani was court genealogist during the last period of the monarchy, and his manuscript, prepared “for the information of Liliuokalani” and published in 1932 by the Bishop Museum as an Appendix to Kepelino, must fall within the queenʻs reign. . . XIII. Having concluded, he arose and gave place to the next.”, The second chant opens with a comparison of the family stock, not to a “pathway” but to “a small tree shooting out its roots and becoming widespread like the Kofai.” The. . . In the Hawaiian religion, the Kumulipo is a chant in the Hawaiian language, first recorded by Westerners in the 18th century, and telling a creation story. . King, III, 4 ff. Kukahi omits lines 403-12, 426, 427, 438, 439, 462, 463, 469-72, 476, and repeats the refrain but once. . Hawaii: A Pageant of the Soil. 8     . This is a birth chant, and procreation is its theme. . Honolulu, 1922. . . . He fixes upon the settling of Oahu by the powerful Maweke family from North Tahiti as the source of this displacement, since the similarities cease about the time that their names appear upon the Hawaiian genealogical line.1, One would like to explain upon this basis the curious introduction on the genealogy of the twelfth section, at lines 1713 to 1715, of a trio of males corresponding to that named in the eighth section at the opening of the period of the Ao. Man for the narrow stream, woman for the broad stream. O kane ia Waiʻololi, o ka wahine ia Waiʻolola, 216. To him is attached the story, absent in Tahiti but present in fringing groups of the eastern Pacific, of the father-daughter marriage ascribed to Tiki in. .” Every first-born of a ruling chief took, to quote Fornander, the name Wakea: O Wakea ka inoa, o ke kumu aliʻi keia o Waloa, reads the text.1 The word Wa-loa I take to be a contraction of Waʻa-loa, “Long-canoe,” and the whole phrase, left untranslated in Fornander, to mean that he is “a male of the chief stock.” The canoe is, like the plant-stalk, a symbol in riddling speech of the male procreative organ. The recitation of the genealogical prayer chant not only honors the long line of ancestral gods with whom he claims kinship but reminds them of their responsibility to this new offspring in the family descent, hence claiming for him as for a child of beloved parents those benefits of fertility in plant and animal life and of success along the pathway of human life necessary for his well being and within the power of gods alone to provide. London, 1878-85. O kane ia Waiʻololi, o ka wahine ia Waiʻolola, 201. . Kanaloa, listed as third in the trio of males born with the woman Laʻilaʻi at the dawn of human life, disappears from the action altogether after his birth in the body of an octopus is announced in the eighth ode. The symbolism depends upon word play. . 1     . Printed in the United States of America Things born from and sprung up in the day are of the light. ANDREWS, LORRIN. Man for the narrow stream, woman for the broad stream, Guarded by the moamoa plant living on land, 76. . No Kumulipo no (“Concerning the Kumulipo”). There is, moreover, a hesitation inherent in the character of the content in the case of a sacred chant like the Kumulipo that hinders frank explanation even when the meaning is clear to the one questioned. . Man for the narrow stream, woman for the broad stream, Guarded by the Ahakea tree living on land, 437. We have no proof that, as in the Marquesas and the Tuamotus, the birth of a son and heir to the ruling chief was celebrated in Hawaii by the recitation of the story of creation together with genealogies and songs of honor belonging to different branches along the family line, and that the Kumulipo chant served this function within the family to whom it belonged. 7. ], [Where] the night ends for the children [of night] [? But even if the allusion has contemporary significance, this would not prove it a fresh interpolation. It seems to have belonged in Keaweʻs time to the Lono priesthood, perhaps brought from Oahu, where Lono worship was particularly active, to Maui, the genealogy of whose ruling chiefs down to Piʻilani occupies the last section; thence brought into the island of Hawaii through the marriage of Piʻilaniʻs daughter Piʻikea with ʻUmi, usurping chief over that island after Liloa, with which marriage and its offspring the reckoning ends. He controls vegetable food and is niggardly with it, “hangs it up in the heavens,” as the saying is, when a drought burns up a crop. The extremely tenacious memories of trained reciters in Hawaii and their special fondness for catalogues of names make a traditional record possible, even though at some point along the line invention filled in the numerical count. Born was the woman Kahaʻula [“Erotic-dreams”] from the brain, Born was Ka-haka-uakoko [“The-perch-of-the-low-lying-rainbow”] from the brain, The god Kaua-kahi [“First-strife”] was born from the brain, 1790. An even closer count to four hundred is to be had by adding to the hundred and eighty-eight pairs of the younger brotherʻs branch listed in the twelfth section the two hundred and fifteen pairs in the eleventh before the twelfth branches from it. RIVERS, W. H. R. The History of Melanesian Society. . . The word maka, “eye,” refers to the constellation of the Pleiades, hiki is a sign of movement; the word translated liberally hence refers to the rising of the Pleiades in the heavens corresponding with the time of the sunʻs turn northward, bringing warmth again to earth, the growth of plants, and the spawning of fish. We cannot tell whether a historical The ode concludes with a paean of praise for the blossoming period of the virgin land under the hand of the ancient planter of taro-patch (lo'i) fame, Lo'iloa. My informants read. . Hawaii's fourth largest island is called the “Garden Island.”. There is, some evidence for such a conclusion. Born was the coral polyp, born was the coral, came forth, Born was the grub that digs and heaps up the earth, came forth, Born was his [child] an earthworm, came forth, Born was the starfish, his child the small starfish came forth, Born was the sea cucumber, his child the small sea cucumber came forth, 20. O kane ia Waiʻololi, o ka wahine ia Waiʻolola, 249. begins the young chiefʻs name song. The Creation for Ka I i mamao, from him to his daughter Alapai wahine, Liliuokalaniʻs great-grandmother. We know from old sources that remote valleys inland were the preferred homes of the ancient chief stock. Nacht. Out came its child an ʻOʻo bird, and flew, Out came its child a brown Albatross, and flew, Out came its child an Ukihi bird, and flew, Out came its child a Tropic bird, and flew, Born was the migrating gray-backed Tern, the parent, 320. 1. There follows a play upon the words hoʻomalino and hoʻolaʻilaʻi, the word malino synonymous with malie meaning “peaceful,” used here with laʻilaʻi, “calm, still,” to express the moment of suspense in nature preceding the birth of gods and men. To the first-born son to his chiefess of the ʻI family went the lands of Ka-u district, to another son born to Keawe by his half-sister Kaulele fell the coveted lands of Kona. ], 675. The Morning Star Rises. The selection of hard-coated creatures as the first forms of life on earth harmonizes with the idea of reproductive power inherent in a stone into which a god enters, an idea fundamental to Polynesian thought about the structure of the world. ], Kane suspected the first-born, became jealous, Suspected Kiʻi and Laʻilaʻi of a secret union [? The Kumulipo is most often described as the Hawaiian creation chant composed as a cosmogonic genealogy, unfolding from the beginning of time to the 18th century. Handy, Marquesan Native Culture, pp. Certainly the composer of this portion of the Kumulipo chant and the Mangarevan mythmaker must have drawn from a common source. E kōmi pālua i ka huaʻōlelo no ka imi ʻana. This last birth is thus definitely connected with the half-mythical ʻOlohe people. with a readiness and volubility that indicated them to be according to some formulary.” At the presentation of a dressed hog to the captain, Koah “addressed him in a long speech, pronounced with much vehemence and rapidity.” With Cook. Malo, pp. The passage is impossible to render in English, certainly not literally.” But who will complain at her This chant of Kumulipo is the chant recited by Puʻou to Lono (Captain Cook) as he stood while a sacrifice of pork was offered to him at the heiau of Hikiau at Kealakekua. . Each closes with an epilogue composed in similar cryptic style, generally descriptive of the world into which the new forms are born. The words Waiʻololi and Waiʻolola are applied in everyday speech to a narrow entrance through which water passes with force and a wide one which receives them without a struggle. Such names are preserved in a family as titles of honor. Especially must genealogies be memorized by more than one reciter. The Mangarevan myth gives to Haumea eight children by Tagaroa. These names are absent from the Kms genealogies. It was also a means of power to the priesthood. Free download ↠ The Kumulipo A Hawaiian Creation Chant Æ PDF, DOC, TXT, eBook or Kindle ePUB free D and transmitted entirely in the oral tradition its 2000 lines provide an extended genealogy p Essential to understanding genealogical power structure in pre and post contact Hawai i Definitely enriched my perspective of contemporary … Ka-ʻI-ʻi-mamao, child of Keawe by a. niaupiʻo chiefess of different parents, has only the niaupiʻo rank. The sacred character of the chant is thus clearly established. hoʻonaninani ʻia. Mauiʻs exploits or ua in his struggle for power are listed by number. . N. B. Emerson, Unwritten Literature of Hawaii, p. 24, note d. tion as the basis of the listing. Under the highest or piʻo grade he would include children of a half- as well as own brother and sister. Call him that and he will be courageous; upon this principle a belief in word magic works. Unfortunately this praiseworthy effort to revive interest among Hawaiians in their literary heritage is without importance for this study. Beckwithʻs purpose in her translation and annotation of the entire two-thousand-line chant was to rescue it from its burial place “in obscure libraries out of reach of scholars today and unknown even to the few Hawaiians left who read their own language and might be able to interpret its meaning” (p. 2). Malo writes: If after this [the formal mating] it is found that the princess is with child there is great rejoicing among all the people that a chief. Both statements are highly conjectural. Such a device was used in handling one of the huge kites of ancient days and I am told is employed today by fishermen off Lahaina to get a squid to shore too big to handle otherwise. The “Woman who ate before and behind” in Tahiti becomes Laʻilaʻi, the “Woman who sat sideways” of the Kumulipo. . upstanding,” the “trace of the nibbling of these reddish ones,” the “mark left upon the rind” of the so-called “mountain apple” or 'ohi'a from a tree whose upland variety bears no fruit, all these passages bring the rat tribe itself clearly before the eye. These name chants were composed by Masters of Song who incorporated into them legendary and timely allusions to enhance the glorious name of the family or individual they were celebrating. Ku-polo-liʻili-aliʻi-mua-o-loʻi-po kona muli, 620. Each chanter has his or her own different voice quality and technique. . From her home on the mountain ridges she sends a drought. He too may have contributed to the tests of skill observed during the ceremony of the Makahiki.2, It is not, however, likely that either of these comparatively late ruling chiefs on the ʻUmi line was the Lono whose departure was dramatized in the Makahiki festival and whose “return” the priests of the Lono cult on Hawaii anticipated so eagerly. Such was undoubtedly the custom within a great house risen to power. . Many have so regarded them. From the messengers and guards down to the commoners among the gods come the innumerable hosts of night. . . from North Star to Southern Cross, Maui has now concluded his ninth adventure, and from this point the numbering becomes confused. It is possible to go farther and to show that the recitation of similar genealogical prayer chants carrying the family stock back to the gods and connecting it with the beginning of life on earth played a part in other Polynesian groups in ceremonies held at the birth of a chiefʻs son. Important as the two seem to be as parent-pair in modern Hawaiian tradition, in the Kumulipo, Wakea and Papa play an apparently minor part. “Darkness” Kelsey applies to distance in time rather than in space. Olopana and Moikeha are his younger brothers. Possibly this new branch upon the family line introduced taro culture.2 Certainly whoever brought the black pig to Hawaii must have stood good chance of candidacy to godhead. The struggle for the privileges of rank turns Mauiʻs attention to the question of his parentage. In every case it is the particular interpretation each gives to the whole meaning of the chant that has decided the value given to any doubtful phrase. . 7     . It cannot be argued that ideas of an educated Hawaiian, however steeped in old tradition, can today, after more than a century of foreign contact, fully or even necessarily correctly interpret priestly teaching in the days before foreign infiltration. The ancients believed that Po was divided into classes similar to the divisions among men. Hoike Papa Kuauhau Aliʻi, p. 15; Kepelino, pp. XII. . Chronology gives 1752 as the date of his succession. . And Kane of Kapokinikini was support, Kii was helpless. Settled down and covered the beach, 329. Handy by the Austrian philologist Dr. Joseph Rock. As a cosmographic term it describes the ocean bottom where lies the slime (walewale) out of which life emerges. Fornander, Collection (“Memoirs,” No. . In the manuscript the order is reversed, bird life illogically preceding fish and forest necessary for their food and nesting. Swing the Seven, na Hiku [Big Dipper], swings the first of the Seven, The second of the Seven, the third of the Seven, The fourth of the Seven, the fifth of the Seven, The sixth of the Seven, the last of the Seven, Sown was the seed of Makaliʻi, seed of the heavens, Sown was the seed of the gods, the sun is a god, Sown was the seed of Hina, an afterbirth of Lono-muku, The food of Hina-ia-ka-malama as Waka [? Man for the narrow stream, woman for the broad stream, Guarded by the Ekupuʻu bird living on land, 359. There is a like emphasis upon opposites, upon mythological allusions, upon refrain. In this epilogue, out of a world crowded with bird life on sea and land, the poet seems to reconstruct the migration period that brought successive waves of settlement to Hawaii, a period ending hundreds of years before. Beckwith, Hawaiian Mythology, pp. My own observation of the attitude of Hawaiians toward even their minor deities, derived, however, entirely during post-Christian times, leads me to believe that the majority en-. By a visiting high chief from the island of Kauai she became grandparent of that Keʻeaumoku who listened on his deathbed to the chant of the Kumulipo at the turn of the century, the man who had been most active in inciting Kamehameha to rebellion, father also of that remarkable woman called “Cape-of-bird-feathers,” Kaʻahumanu, who became the favorite wife of the conqueror. With any assurance of the Polynesian people but entitled to different degrees of veneration in the Lono-i-ka-makahiki. Creation, ” Journal of the bright one into the list of grand-children with whom Haumea Slept! Anthropology published for the sake of family prestige preserved for generations in the births of this.... The complex problems relating to it 516-27, 531-33, 535 shell a filip cracks. 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Scratched out the eyes of the mother gives birth, those of the chant are devoted... Often separated without hyphens uka, 46 outlines of the last section are substantially same.

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