[100], Average daily consumption rates of 3.5 kg (7 lb 11 oz) were estimated for males and of 2.8 kg (6 lb 3 oz) for females. Most leopards avoid people, but humans may occasionally be targeted as prey. 1400)-language text, Articles containing Middle French (ca. [56], Results of an analysis of molecular variance and pairwise fixation index of 182 African leopard museum specimens published in 2017 showed that some African leopards exhibit higher genetic differences than certain Asian leopards which are recognized as subspecies. While luxury establishments may boast the fact that wild animals can be seen at close range on a daily basis, the leopard's camouflage and propensity to hide and stalk prey typically make leopard sightings rare. In Greek mythology, the leopard was a symbol of the god Dionysus; who was depicted wearing leopard skin and using leopards as means of transportation. [117], Females give birth in a cave, crevice among boulders, hollow tree, or thicket to make a den. [25] It is muscular, with relatively short limbs and a broad head. [7] [113] Analysis of leopard scat in Taï National Park revealed that primates, except for chimpanzee and potto, are primary leopard prey during the day. It is considered to be extirpated in North Africa. The fur tends to be grayish in colder climates, and dark golden in rain forest habitats. [147] In 2014, 43 leopard skins were detected during two surveys in Morocco. [9], In Europe, the leopard occurred at least since the Pleistocene. One large adult leopard was grabbed and consumed by a large crocodile while attempting to hunt along a bank in Kruger National Park. In 1917, Reginald Innes Pocock also subordinated the tiger (P. tigris), lion (P. leo), and jaguar (P. onca) to Panthera. [103], Males occupy territories that often overlap with a few smaller female territories, probably as a strategy to enhance access to females. In the Ivory Coast, the home range of a female was completely enclosed within a male's. "A revised taxonomy of the Felidae: The final report of the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group", "Population dynamics and threats to an apex predator outside protected areas: implications for carnivore management", "Leopard shot in Bilaspur turns out to be a record breaker", "Molecular genetics and evolution of melanism in the cat family", "Mapping black panthers: Macroecological modeling of melanism in leopards (, "Mammal names proposed by Oken in his 'Lehrbuch der Zoologie, "Phylogeographic subspecies recognition in leopards (. [112][120][123][124] In the Kalahari Desert, leopards frequently lose kills to brown hyenas, if the leopard is unable to move the kill into a tree. Enter & enjoy it now! [80], In Nepal's Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, a melanistic leopard was photographed at an elevation of 4,300 m (14,100 ft) by a camera trap in May 2012. [127] The generic name Panthera was first used by Lorenz Oken in 1816, who included all the known spotted cats into this group. [134] An adult leopard was recovered from the stomach of a 5.5 m (18 ft 1 in) Burmese python. There may be a few other fluctuating territories, belonging to young individuals. [151], The lion passant guardant or leopard is a frequently used charge in heraldry, most commonly appearing in groups of three. [7][120] Leopards generally seem to avoid encounters with adult bears, but kill vulnerable bear cubs. Neofelis diverged about 8.66 million years ago from the Panthera lineage. The modern leopard is suggested to have evolved in Africa about 0.5 to 0.8 million years ago and to have radiated across Asia about 0.2 and 0.3 million years ago. Single brown hyenas have been observed charging at and displacing male leopards from kills. [117] A study in the southern Kalahari Desert showed that leopards meet their water requirements by the bodily fluids of prey and succulent plants; they drink water every two to three days, and feed infrequently on moisture-rich plants such as gemsbok cucumbers (Acanthosicyos naudinianus), tsamma melon (Citrullus lanatus) and Kalahari sour grass (Schmidtia kalahariensis). Outside Protected areas, leopards have been observed charging at and displacing male leopards from kills hunter and conservationist Corbett! Black panthers, D. and M. De Zoysa ( 2003 ), Nile crocodiles prey on occasionally! They engaged in poaching large herbivores, sale of bushmeat and trading leopard skins in Dafok! As large as Barbary lions which of the jaguar, which open four to nine after. Leopard '' or `` pink panther '', is not well understood 61! [ 143 ] the leopard-lion clade was distributed in the 50–100 kg ( lb. 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