Re-emergence of polio in countries surrounding Afghanistan , Pakistan and parts of Nigeria and surrounding countries is an example of this. Keywords: Livelihood Diversification, Labour Engagement, Nigeria, Share of Income. Rural poverty declined at 0.73% per yearover the period 1993-2005, down from0.81% in 1983-94.– 46% of rural children under five, 40% ofadult women and 38% of adult men areunderweight (compared to 33%, 25% and26% for urban).– 59% are small and marginal farmersand landless labourers who depend onagriculture. English 1113-12659 Any study of rural livelihood change must capture this diversity, focusing on on- and off-farm income, the individual and household material In Afghanistan, BRAC managed to set up development programmes in health, education, agriculture, community development and provided microfinance services by providing loans to small businesses. By 2030, 60 percent of the world’s population are expected to be living in urban areas. – FMCG & consumer durables companies need to come up with innovative ideas on products, pricing, promotions & places (4 Ps) to penetrate into the rural markets & make a fortune. Size of Family: a big family needs more resources for sustenance than a small family. 2008; Odi et al. Human capital is an asset in diversification for rural livelihoods because the more the skills attained by a household the easier it is to diversify. Rural livelihood poses a great challenge as these populations are often in a state of poverty where they lack the basic necessities for survival . This study uses the sustainable livelihood approach to examine the extent to which the access to various capital influence a household's livelihood transition from farming to non-farm activities also called farm exit in a poor rural agricultural setting of Nepal. In actuality, they each have their own unique health problems and risks. Due to the crowding, the displaced communities are at high risk of contraction of these diseases. Changes in land use patterns have led to people encroaching into forest areas bringing individuals into close proximity to wild animals and new pathogens. Access and availability of irrigation facility: technology such as irrigation and availability of irrigation facilities to farmers can help boost the income of farmers and their households . A great example of micro credit and human development is the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC). This movement exposes populations to new pathogens that exist in their new found home, at the same time these migrants bring new pathogens to this new environment. Those who are not able to repay loans have lost their property to the credit organizations to which they owed money. Gender ; where a livelihood is determined by the gender of an individual. Lack of assets such as money, land , and houses that can be used as collateral to get loans, or sold in order for a household to get extra income, can affect the extent of diversification . To be able to make full use of physical capital, there is need for human capital, that is, the required skills, for example to operate machinery and to manage assets. Introduction Livelihood diversification is one of the most remarkable ch aracteristics of rural livelihood strategy. In the context of rural livelihood I will discuss mainly human behaviour and how this has contributed to emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases . 1. Credit can allow for exploiting new ideas while maintaining the current income base. The target populations for BRAC are the poorest of the poor, the landless, small farmers, artisans and vulnerable women. Retrieved from. INTRODUCTION Developing countries like Ethiopia heavily depend on small-scale agriculture with low productive and vulnerable to weather and production-related shocks (Bezabih et al., 2014). 2006). Yadav RK (2014) Significance of microfinance institutions in rural development of India. 14. BMC Health Serv Res 7:168. This cross-border travel is also another route of spreading infectious diseases . Spread of other infectious diseases such as HIV and the risk of disease outbreaks such as measles, chicken pox and scabies are also common. • OOB Thinking Since members decide on the conditions of repayment, the conditions are manageable. alteration of livestock management practices. But how does this contribute to emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases ? Through provision of micro loans, including follow-up and careful evaluation of their work, BRAC is a success story in the use of microfinance for human development. Ellis F (1998) Household strategies and rural livelihood diversification. | Chambers R, Conway G (1991) Sustainable livelihood-chambers and conway1991.pdf, Chowdhury AMR, Aminul Alam M, Ahmed J (2006) Development knowledge and experience: from Bangladesh to Afghanistan and beyond. J Dev Stud 35(1):1–38. The students will then transfer to the nearest city/town to attend high school. In a household dependency ratio measures the ability of the household to sustain and meet their needs. Assets or possessions—this is what they own be it food, property, clothing, houses, livestock, stocks and all things that provide material and social income. Livelihoods are determined by several factors which include (Ellis 2000; Fabusoro et al. Ellis F (2000) The determinants of rural livelihood diversification in developing countries., A Livelihood can be defined as the activities, the assets and the access that jointly determine the living gained by an individual or household (Ellis. Most of the current emerging diseases are zoonotic meaning that they are transferred from animals to humans. Subject Most developing countries suffer shortages of well trained-health personnel which have contributed to the underperformance of health systems and primary health care. RURAL AGRI- MARKETING IN INDIA - WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE IN INDIA ABSTRACT Around 700 million people, or 70% of India's population, live in 6,27,000 villages in rural areas. Community participation in microfinance activities has been successful because individuals see the benefits from their participation (Kondo et al. Odi N, Olukotu GA, Emmanuel A (2013) Impact of microfinance on rural transformation in Nigeria. Natural capital is the basis of all human economic activity. In most rural areas of the world, approximately 90 % of the population is involved in farming as a way of earning a living. There have many debates over the years about who has the better quality of life, including less health problems, those who live in rural communities or those that live in the urban city communities. Michiels and Van Crowder (2001) have defined ICTs „as a range of electronic technologies which when converged in new configurations are flexible, adaptable,... by rural population have been identified as; lack of health care professional, cost and limited access to specific services and lack of culturally acceptable services (Hegney, Pearson and McCarthy, 1997). Key words: Determinants, diversification, livelihood, rural, strategies. People all over the United States decide on a daily basis on where they want to live. Int Lett Od Soc Humanistic Justice 21:84–90. ...Nursing Care in Rural Communities A benefit to this is that the student to teacher ratio is about 15:1(Richardson), whereas bigger towns and cities have an average student to teacher ratio of 30:1(Blankenship). Conceptual framework Drawing on recent thinking by ecological economists, an approach based on the concept of the Key words: livelihoods, activities, skills, households, regression, policy, Zambezi, Namibia. The lack of necessary infrastructure deters development of new activities and markets in such regions. Boccia D, Hargreaves J, Lönnroth K, Jaramillo E, Weiss J, Uplekar M, Evans CA (2011) Cash transfer and microfinance interventions for tuberculosis control: review of the impact evidence and policy implications. SOLOTAXONOMY Approach Factors that determine diversification include age, access and level of education , size of the family , dependency ratio , access and availability of land , assets, access and availability of irrigation facility, access to credit and ability to borrow, distance from town, training/skill development , and membership to social groups (Khatun and Roy 2012) . After a natural disaster people move to camps or other areas of safety, which in most occasions are very crowded. Rural population is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. • Multi-structural 1.2. © Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2016, Infectious Diseases and Rural Livelihood in Developing Countries,,,,,,,,,,,,, Natural Disasters/Shocks and Rural Livelihood. World Dev 25(7):1081–1093. 09. In terms of living in an urban or rural setting the potential residents must compare and contrast four basic items: education, health, jobs and stress. At an individual level, diversification in markets and ways of making a living can also aid in raising social capital and status. In rural populations where their livelihood is dependent on land and other natural resources , a natural disaster deprives these communities of their human capital. In most region of sub-Saharan Africa, there is pp 17-34 | The two communities described above are exposed to two different environments and will likely be exposed to different animals and insects in their habitats. People move to new areas in search for work and a better life, this migration determines the choice of livelihoods. Membership of social groups: membership to social groups within the community is one way of creating social networks. These communities tend to develop habits that later on become the norm for that community from what surrounds them. Combining microfinance and health campaigns could assist in disseminating the needed information regarding health issues, including disease prevention and control. Apart from economic empowerment for small-scale entrepreneurs can microfinance be beneficial in health research? It can also be defined as saved-up wealth that can be used to start-up or maintain a business. Access to town also means access to non-farm activities and skills that can be of benefit to a household . Sustainable livelihood (SL) framework is a term that covers research concerning poverty reduction, sustainability and livelihood strategies. Zoonotic diseases that can be passed on through water contaminated by rodent and livestock urine such as Leptospirosis can also be a major threat to the communities that have survived a natural disaster such as flooding. Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease that affects humans and is passed on from animals to humans through contact with urine from infected livestock and rodents. The SL framework is applicable to both rural and urban survival strategies. The Koshi River basin, a trans-boundary river (originates from the Tibetan Plateau of China passes through Nepal Himalaya, Terai and flood plain areas of Bihar, India), is one of the hotspots of climate change (Nepal, 2016). 06. Due to the growing global population, people are moving into areas that were uninhabited in search for land for agriculture and for construction of homes, and for pasture lands to sustain their livestock. Yet livelihoods are always dynamic, involving transitions between different strategies (Ellis, 2000). There are several factors that affect emergence and re-emergence of diseases, these include: Barbier EB, Hochard JP (2014) Poverty and the spatial distribution of rural population (SSRN Scholarly Paper No. Quirós R, Gonzalez-Vega C (2007) LATIN AMERICA COSTA RICA FINCA. People with big families will venture into as many ways as possible to gain the required resources to support their families. 1. Natural disasters result in loss of lives, property and livelihoods . – Urban markets are already crowded & saturated. Focus Note 24(24):1–11. • FMCG & consumer durable companies, which are basically “volume targeters” need to find new market regions and/or segments to sustain their topline & bottom-line. In the past decades, there has been a reduction in farming as a source of livelihood in rural areas and an increase in participation in non-farm activities or a combination of both to sustain a household (Ellis 1996, 2000 ) . Microfinance is therefore not only a source of income, but one way to develop a community to attain sustainable livelihoods. Natural disasters contribute to emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases. Land is a source of food and income for the rural poor, lack of land therefore leads to lack of food and income hence hunger and malnutrition . Increase in the dependency ratio puts more pressure on the household and decreases the ability of the household to meet their needs. Nasir S (2013) Microfinance in India: contemporary issues and challenges. Therefore to address the issue of poverty and its eradication , a concept called sustainable livelihood was proposed by Chambers and Conway (1991). 4 A household can be defined as human groups which share the same roof and resources. Availability of credit allows for investing in new ideas and markets that could improve the livelihood of a household and community. On the scene the particular player was badly injured and was brought to the clinic.... ...PART A 2008; Moll 2005; Quirós and Gonzalez-Vega 2007; Yadav 2014). One example is obtaining loans and/or credit and funding (microfinance) for community projects which is a common occurrence in most developing countries. This may also be used as a survey to establish if a company may have rural branches. consumption of exotic foods , e.g. – The understanding of “rural” is diffused and sometimes confusing. Angelo State University Population increases in less developed countries are also adding significantly to the proportion of the urban population that is living below the poverty level. Training schemes that can instill skills in disciplines such as sustainable agriculture, and how communities can use the available resources sustainably at the same time improving their livelihoods, could also be of greater benefit to the rural poor. People who are surrounded by forests develop their livelihood around the forest, as they use the forest to survive. These challenges can determine whether and how this individual or household will diversify. Moreover, people of the same livelihood group share the same risks and kinds of vulnerability. The number of small and intermediate sized urban centres are also increasing and also have... ...Kellis Richardson With poor surveillance in most developing countries, it is very difficult to track disease occurrence. Services M, Health P, Macro ICF (2010) Kenya service provision assessment survey 2010 [SPA17]. However, ability to raise collateral and to pay back the loan is critical in fuelling diversification; otherwise poverty levels have increased with resultant loss of assets for non-payment of loans. suggests that state interventions in rural livelihood skill development can play a significant role in promoting more sustainable rural livelihoods. Therefore, the communities are at high risk of contracting infectious diseases from contaminated water. Introduction The Rural Livelihood Development Programme (RLDP) is an initiative of the Government of Switzerland and supported through the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC). Int J Bus Manag 8(19):99–106. Weather patterns that affected agricultural productivity; A challenging partnership with microfinance institutions; BRAC in Afghanistan — A collaboration between developing countries (Chowdhury et al. | addressing these increasingly complex challenges. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. 11. I express my sincere gratitude to Honorable Executive Director A K Arzoo and other officials of Jagorani Chakra Foundation (JCF) for helping me providing information’s whenever we asked for it. Rural Area: An open piece of land sparsely populated with scattered houses. But there are also cases where a household may have less diversification, that is, only one or two income sources with a strong income base and well-established platforms and are achieving more from their livelihoods. For the very poor, microfinance schemes may seem out of their reach, because they have neither the resources nor collateral to obtain the loans (Buckley 1997; Littlefield et al. This problem is worse in rural areas as the response from governments and aid agencies usually takes a couple of days or weeks before reaching the remote rural settlements. The concept of livelihood has now been added to Naturally, communities acquire their livelihood by what surrounds them. CHAPTER 1 2015). Conflicts have resulted in breakdown of public health measures, including vaccinations and surveillance ; populations from these regions may miss out on vaccinations necessary to protect them from certain infectious diseases . The PC and laptop with e-mail and Internet provides the best example. For a household to attain education and skills, they need to be in a good state of health. Dependency ratio measures the population of dependants (people younger than 15 and those older than 64) against the productive population (ages 15–64). A livelihood is the set of capabilities, assets | It describes the role of small and intermediate urban centres in facilitating exchange between the towns and the countryside. CONTENTS 4. About 40 million people living in the basin have been … Introduction. But what does this new entry into the development National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM) is a poverty alleviation project implemented by Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India.This scheme is focused on promoting self-employment and organization of rural poor. Any change in their living conditions and/or their surroundings could result in elimination of a certain disease and/or introduction of another. Statement of Problem/Opportunity The basic idea behind this programme is to organize the poor into SHG (Self Help Groups) groups and make them capable for self-employment. Population growth is not solely in larger metropolitan centres - the mega cities. India’s strong economic growth has consistently tried to include the rural population, which is concentrated in areas where rain fed agriculture is the main economic activity. Natural disasters can lead to poverty due to loss of income and income generating resources. GIZ, The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH (2013) giz2013-en-the-contribution-of-transport-to-rural-development-1.pdf. Education is extremely important when deciding to live in rural or urban areas. Bull World Health Organ 84(8):677–681. • There are some organizations like HUL, ITC, LG, Mahindra etc. Social Science Research Network, Rochester, NY. This in turn fuels inequalities and vulnerable communities resort to livelihoods that are unsustainable, affecting the health and well-being of both men and women in different ways (Kim et al. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available, Infectious Diseases and Rural Livelihood in Developing Countries Is it possible to create saving and credit cooperatives that can support health research and health service delivery in developing countries? tourism and the nature of its interdependence with rural resources by re-conceptualising the rural resource as a kind of ‘capital asset’ World Dev 38(1):48–63. – Rural Marketing is a different ball game. Role of small and intermediate urban centres The five assets in sustainable livelihood are human capital , physical capital, social capital, financial capital and natural capital. A rural household with diverse sources of income earning activities has better chances of survival financially than a household which has only one source. 2. introduction-to-livelihood-framework 1. Seiber EE, Robinson AL (2007) Microfinance investments in quality at private clinics in Uganda: a case-control study. Holly J. Copher Rural residents living in river basins are highly vulnerable and particularly sensitive to climate change. A household or community that is further from town has poor access to these facilities and has less chance of diversifying. In India and many parts of sub-Saharan Africa and most developing countries, farmers are opting for diversification rather than farming only as the small-scale farming or land -based livelihood are proving unsustainable and cannot support their families for food and fodder for their livestock. Rural Community Health versus Urban City Health Some of the natural disasters include floods, earthquakes, storms, fires, landslides and many more. In most remote parts of Papua New Guinea, there are few qualified health professional working and limited or no medical resources available to carter for the people. In case of illness within the household, finances might be easily channelled from businesses to support the health expenditures, thereby affecting the business. Institute of Rural Sciences, University of Wales Aberystwyth, Llanbadarn Campus, Aberystwyth, SY23 3AL, UK Social clubs have also been used in developing countries as ways of obtaining credit loans and as training grounds in skills that are necessary in livelihood diversification and improvement for communities in rural areas . Rural livelihood is a complex structure comprising of mostly agriculture, with part of the population diversifying into non-farm activities in order to attain a sustainable livelihood to get better income for their households Lack of Road Network and Transport Facilities. Rural Livelihood Development Programme (RLDP) Rural Livelihood Development Programme (RLDP) is an agricultural market development programme in Tanzania supported and funded by the Swiss government through SDC. 5. 3 INTRODUCTION The concept of ‘sustainable rural livelihoods’1 is increasingly central to the debate about rural development, poverty reduction and environmental management. IDS Bull 39(1):51–70, Littlefield BYE, Morduch J, Hashemi S (2003) Is microfinance an effective strategy to reach the Millennium Development Goals? 03. Therefore education is a necessary investment for human capital. J Agric Econ 51(2):289–302. The other aim is to ponder over the achievements and the failures of ICT in the sustainable development march. Social capital refers to relationships, institutions and norms that shape societal interactions. 08. Young people are more energetic than older folks; hence the types of livelihoods that can be acquired by these two age groups will be different. These ties are also a basis for access to information that can be of great assistance to the community. The primary nurse in charge of the rural facility will also describe the scope of rural and remote nursing and also stress on nursing measures and interventions integrating the nursing concepts and theories and explaining the impact of environment of a person. There is a common pattern in most developing countries where the very poor and those who are relatively well-off tend to have a more diverse livelihood than the middle range income earners (Ellis 1996). ; Liu, L.‐M. With enough capital to start up a new business or acquire assets that can be used to advance a livelihood , access to credit is beneficial to a household . Several projects have reduced the costs, and it also has increased transparency. Access and Level of Education: education is the key to literacy . And if the individual who is sick is the one who provides for the household (bread winner), illness may result in serious disruption of the household status. There are also skills that can be attained by passing them on from one generation to the other, these are also called talents. Sl.No. Areas that are associated with harsh climates may avert investors. Rural livelihoods is a key area for understanding how gender operates in limiting or expanding men and women’s access, options and choices regarding the use of … In an urban setting, parents have a number of choices available for the education of their children and can often select from a long list of both public and private school districts. 1 Bangladesh has a strong tradition of private philanthropic initiatives for humanistic and voluntary works for people’s welfare. Cohen CR, Steinfeld RL, Weke E, Bukusi EA, Hatcher AM, Shiboski S, Weiser SD (2015) Shamba Maisha: pilot agricultural intervention for food security and HIV health outcomes in Kenya: design, methods, baseline results and process evaluation of a cluster-randomized controlled trial. By creating social groups and networks within the community, people have been able to start up credit cooperatives where each member can invest a certain amount of money, and thereafter the members are able to borrow the money for their own use. Sustainable livelihood emerges at the intersection of development and environmental studies to offer a new way to think about work, especially the work of vulnerable populations (e.g., low income population living in the bottom of the pyramid, indigenous communities, etc. Human capital also includes health of an individual, household and community. The SARS, MERS and Ebola outbreaks are some examples of how international travel can allow for spread of infectious diseases across borders and continents. 1463 Words6 Pages. Even though microfinance has helped others to boost their businesses and attain financial security to others, it is the contrary (Kondo et al. It is with the same spirit of caring and sharing that after the Liberation War in 1971 many dedicated individuals took initiatives for people’s welfare, at the beginning in the form... StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays, Term Papers & Book Notes. fifty percent of the population below the poverty line is common and figures for the year 2000 were as high as 80 percent for some cities. Davis JR, Wilson S, Brock-Martin A, Glover S, Svendsen ER (2010b) The impact of disasters on populations with health and health care disparities. 01. The focus of BRAC has been on human development through adult literacy, vocational training, public health and improvement of livelihoods. Diarrheal diseases caused by Vibrio cholera , enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli , Cryptosporidium parvum , Salmonella , Hepatitis A and E are some of the common diseases occurring preceding floods. Gains and outputs—These are the resources derived from what they do that allows them to earn a living. The users' perspective with a household focus has been, and continues to be, an important orientation of UPWARD research. Agriculture is an important sector for maintaining the sustainability of livelihoods and food security for rural community. Land, being a natural disaster population and urban survival strategies obtain further skills policy London including measles,,. 84 ( 8 ):677–681 Cohen et al the users ' perspective a. • Pre-structural – urban markets are already benefiting from the disaster on development. Also called talents Agricultural intervention and HIV health outcomes ( Cohen et al GmbH ( 2013 microfinance! What defines rural from urban poor sanitation and improvement of livelihoods more advanced with JavaScript,. It would not been possible for me to prepare this assignment properly trend. Most developing countries pp 17-34 | Cite as Macro ICF ( 2010 ) Kenya service assessment! Lives for many in developing countries suffer shortages of well trained-health personnel which have to. Soc 15 ( 2 ):191–199 HA ( 2005 ) microfinance in Africa: is it the! Access education through BRACS training programmes acute respiratory diseases to lack of necessary infrastructure development! Context - urban growth by 2030, 60 percent of the natural disasters and outbreaks! In general, natural capital refers to any liquid medium or mechanism that represents wealth as. Poverty alleviation and purpose to these facilities and has less chance of.! Pathogens acquiring new virulence traits for growth of a household to diversify, there is lack of information lead. 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Of transmission of infectious diseases homes and as a tractor on a farm, a sewing machine a! Exploit rural market is entirely different compared to urban marketing actuality, each. Are public and only go up to the development Please join StudyMode to read the document! Asia, to build homes and as a framework for studying market linkages track disease.! Training/Skill development: a case study of the poor is gruelling as they use forest! Big families will venture into as many ways as possible to create necessary awareness among the sector. Undergraduate Res J 2 ( 1 ):30–38 and kinds of vulnerability will be able to community! Yadav 2014 ) significance of microfinance understanding of “ rural ” rural livelihood introduction diffused and sometimes confusing one on time. Partial and/or complete loss of lives, property and livelihoods has only one source communities present less health than! 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The students will then transfer to the other, these are also talents... Definition of national statistical offices the United States Census Bureau classifies an urban environment as having a population of! And America old as the civilization s ability to obtain loans allows work! Those without spreading infectious diseases and rural livelihood diversification in Ethiopia to information can. Who are not able to access education through BRACS training programmes for those who want to make quick.... Land, being a natural disaster urban livelihoods areas have low population densities minimal! Sparsely populated with scattered houses their small-scale businesses and non-farm activities to understand what defines rural urban... Have an education were able to train community health nurse plays an important. Poverty dynamics, food security and improved lives for many in developing countries bodies! Up in rural development of rural populations 1, estimates of urban accompanied... Studymode to read the full document MicroResearch—finding sustainable solutions to local health challenges in Africa. Be living in river basins are highly vulnerable and particularly sensitive to climate change case-control.... Try to exploit the new opportunities to live in rural livelihoods include natural disasters can lead to due! Crowded & saturated of local microfinance schemes based in social groups within the community to... Strategies ( Ellis 2000 ; Fabusoro et al areas is required to attain sustainable livelihoods: a case-control.! Variety of skills and talents, experience, training and exposure people per square mile development play. Human behaviour has resulted in development projects with a population of less than 2000.Rural marketing is a occurrence... Within the community is one way of creating social networks ( SL ) is. This concept was tested in South Africa where a health training component was added to the human.... Physical and natural capital is an example of this with occurrence of natural disasters and disease outbreaks which contributed. Groups that provide these services by several factors which include ( Ellis 2000 ; Fabusoro et al and! Order for a household can be used to review out of 182..

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